Framing Feminization of Agriculture: From Gender-environment Theories to International Environmental Law

Sabrina Brizioli

Resum

ABSTRACT: Since 70s the debate about women and environment has registered a considerable change in the perception of the role played by women and different conceptual and methodological approaches developed to deal with the women ­– gender – environment interrelationship and to compare the feminist standpoint with the androcentric culture that makes male (andros) at the center of the economic, socio-cultural and political life.

This paper, which focuses on the feminization of agriculture phenomenon, i.e. women’s increasing work and responsibilities in agriculture, explores its meaning in terms of women’s empowerment and examines the contribution of feminist strands of thought (such as ecofeminismwomen and environmentgender, environment and sustainable development) in fostering the gender paradigm in environmental concerns, plans for agricultural and rural development.

The author aims at verifying whether the international environmental law system has integrated the ability of feminist perspectives to position women’s rights and conditions at the core of environmental issues by (en)-gendering some changes and criticizing the power and distribution of resources that have consistently been associated with masculinity.


Paraules clau

Feminization of Agriculture; Women Empowerment; Ecofeminism; Sustainable Development; Gender

Text complet:

PDF (English)

Referències


References

Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola; Nunn, Nathan, “On the Origin of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough”, in Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2013, vol.128, issue 2, p. 469-530

Archambault, Anne, A Critique of Ecofeminsm, Canadian Woman Studies/Les cahiers de la femme, vol. 13, issue 3, 1993, p. 19-22

Agarwal, Bina, “The Gender and Environmetal Debate: Lessons from India”,

in Feminist Studies, vol.18, issue 1, 1992, p. 119-158

Alston, Margaret, Breaking Through the Grass Ceiling. Women, Power and Leadership in Agricultural Organisations, Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 2000

Baker, Susan, “The Principles and Practice of Ecofeminism: A Review”, in Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 2, issue 1, 1993, p. 4-26.

Bem, Sandra L., The Lenses of Gender: Trasforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality, New Haven, Yale UNiversity Press, 1993

Benería, Lourdes, Berik Günseli and Floro, Maria S., Gender, Development, and Globalization. Economics as if all People Mattered, Routledge, New York/London, 2003.

Bieri, Sabin, “New Ruralities – Old Gender Dynamics? A Reflection on High-value Crop Agriculture in the Light of the Feminizaztion Debates”, in Geographica Helvetica, vol. 69, 2014, p. 281-290,

Biever, Joan L.; De Las, Fuentes; Cynthia, Cashion, Lisa; Franklin, Cynthia, “The Social Construction of Gender: A Comparison of Feminist and Postmodern Approaches”, in Counselling Psychology Quarterly, vol. 11, issue 2, 1998, p. 163-179

Birke, Lynda I.A. and Vines, Gail, “Beyond Nature Versus Nurture: Process and Biology in the Development of Gender”, in Women’s Studies International Forum, vol 10, issue 6, 1987, p. 555-570

Bock, Bettina B.; Shortall, Sally, (eds.), Rural Gender Relations: Issues and Case Studies, Cabi Publishing, Cambridge, 2006

Bohan, Janis S., “Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology”, in Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 17, issue 1, 1993, p. 5-21

Boserup, Esther, Woman’s Role in Economic Development, Earthscan, London/New York. 1970

Braidotti, Rosi; Charkiewicz, Ewa; Häusler, Sabine; Wieringa, Saskia, Women, the Environement and Sustainable Development. Towards a Theoretical Synthesis, ZED BOOKS in association with INSTRAW, London/New Jersey/Santo Domingo, 2004

Brandth, Berith, “Changing Femininity The Social Construction of Women Farmers in Norway”, in Sociologia Ruralis. Journal of the European Society for Rural Sociology, vol. 34, issues 2-3, 1994, p.127-149

Brandth, Berith, “On the Relationship Between Feminism and Farm Women”, in Agriculture and Human Values, 2002, vol.19, issue 2, p.107-117

Brooks, Ehrenreich Rosa, “Feminism and International Law: An Opportunity for Transformation”, in Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, vol. 14, 2002, p. 345-361

Buckingham, Susan, “Ecofeminism in the Twenty-First Century”, in The Geographical Journal, vol. 170, issue 2, 2004, p. 146-154

Cameron, Jenny; Gibson-Graham J.K., “Feminising the Economy: Metaphors, Strategies, Politics”, in Gender, Place & Culture. A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2003, p. 145-157

Carlassare, Elizabeth, “Essentialism in Ecofeminist Discourse”, in Carolyn Merchant (ed.), Ecology, Humanities Press, New York, 1994, p. 220-234

Carson, Rachel, Silent Spring, Mariner Books, Boston/New York, 2002

Chant, Sylvia, “Re-Thinking the Feminization of Poverty in Relation to Agrregate Gender Indices”, in Journal of Human Development, vol. 7, issue 2, 2006, p. 201-220

Charlesworth, Hilary, “Women as Sherpas: Are Global Summits Useful for Women?”, in Feminist Studies, vol. 22, issue 3, 1996, p. 537-547

Charlesworth, Hilary, “Feminist Methods in International Law”, in The American Journal of International Law, vol. 93, 1999, p. 379-394

Charlesworth, Hilary; Chinkin, Christine; Wright, Shelley, “Feminist Aproaches to International Law”, in The American Journal of International Law, vol. 85, issue 4, 1991, p. 613-645

Christinck, Anja, “Farmers’ Rights: Views, Experiences, Lessons Learned and Proposed National Measures for the Implementation of Article 9”, Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Farmers’ Rights Background Paper, Rome, 11-14 September 2018

Conley, Verena Andermatt, Ecopolitics. The Environment in Poststructuralist Thought, Routledge, London/New York, 1997

Corazza, Chiara, “Il principio femminile/materno. La critica allo sviluppo di J.C. Kumarappa e V. Shiva”, in Annalisa Zabonati (ed.), Ecofemminismo/Ecofeminsm, in Deportate, esuli, profughe. Rivista telematica di studi sulla memoria femminile, issue 20, 2012, p. 90-104

D’Eaubonne, Françoise, Le féminisme ou la mort, P. Horay, Paris, 1974

Dankelman, Irene; Davidson, Joan, Women and Environment in the ThirdWorld: Alliance for the Future, Earthscan Publications, London, 2004, Foreword, p. IX

Dankelman, Irene, “Women Advocationg for Sustainable Livelihoods and Gender Equality on the Global Stage”, in Wendy Harcourt (ed.), Women Reclaiming Sustainable Livelihoods: Spaces Lost, Spaces Gained, Palgrave MacMillan, New York, 2012, p. 21-41

De Brauw, Alan; Li, Qiang; Chengfang, Liu; Rozelle, Scott; Zhang, Linxiu, “Feminization of Agriculture in China? Myths Surrounding Women’s Participating in Farming”, in The China Quarterly, No. 194, 2008, p. 327-348

De Schutter, Oliver, “The Agrarian Transition and the ‘Feminization of Agriculture’”, in Food and Sovereignty: A Critical Dialogue, Conference Paper of the International Conference Yale University, September 14-15, 2013, issue 37, p. 1-43

De Schutter, Oliver, “The Emerging Human Right to Land”, in International Community Law Review, vol. 12, issue 3, 2010, p. 303-334

Dolan, Cathrine; Sorby, Kristina, “Gender and Employment in High-Value Agriculture Industries”, in Agriculture and Rural Development Working Paper 7, Washington DC, World Bank. 2003

Douglas, A. Vakoch; Mickey, Sam (eds.), Ecofeminism in Dialogue, Lexington Books, Lanham/Boulder/New York/London, 2018

Elmhirst, Rebecca, “Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies”, in Geoforum, vol. 42, issue 2, 2011, p. 129-132

Enloe, Cynthia H., Does Khaki Become You? The Militarisation of Women’s Lives, Pluto Press, London, 1983

Enloe, Cynthia H., Banans,Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, 1990

Escobar-Lemmon, Maria C.; Taylor-Robinson, Michelle M. (eds.), Representation: The Case of Women, Oxford University Press, New York, 2014.

Fiaccadori, Elisa, “The Question of ‘Nature’: What has Social Constructionism to Offer Feminist Theory?”, in Sociology Working Papers, 2006, p. 1-17

Focarelli, Carlo, Costruttivismo giuridico e giurisdizioni internazionali, Kluwer/Cedam, 2019, Milano

Fuss, Diana, Essentially Speaking: Feminism, Nature & Difference, Routledge, New York/London, 1989

Gaard, Greta, “Ecofeminism Revisited: Rejecting Essentialism and Re-Placing Species in a Material Feminist Environmentalism”, in Feminist Formations, vol. 23, issue 2, 2011, p. 26-53

Garrity-Bond, Cynthia, “Ecofeminist Epistemology in Vandana Shiva’s the Feminin; The Principle of Prakriti and Ivone Gebara’s Trinitaria Cosmology”, in Feminist Theology, vol. 26, issue 2, 2018, p. 185-194

Gartaula, Hom Nath; Niehof, Anke; Visser, Leontine, “Feminisation of Agriculture as an Effect of Male Out-migration: Unexpected Outcomes from Jhapa District, Eastern Nepal”, in The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, vol. 5, 2010, p. 565-577

Gornick, Vivian; Moran, Barbara K. (eds), Woman in sexist society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness, Basic Books, New York, 1971

Harcourt, Wendy, “Negotiating Position in the Sustainable Development Debate: Situating the Feminist Perspective”, in Wendy Harcourt (ed), Feminist Perspectives on Sustainable Development, Zed Books LTD, London/New Jersey, 1994, p. 22

Harding, Sandra, The Science Question in Feminism, Cornell University Press, New York, 1986

Hausler, Sabine, “Gender and the Environment: Recent Initiatives to Improve Sustainable Development Policy, Planning and Practice”, in Gender, Technology and Development, 1997, n. 3, p. 327-348

Henry, Astrid, Not My Mothers’ Sister. Generational Conflict And The Third

–Wave Feminsm, Indiana University Press, Boolongton And Indianapolis, 2004

IICA, Women and Gender Equity in the New Vision of Rural Reality. A proposal from IICA for Strategic Action, Document Presented at the Eigh Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Xarrabbean, Lima Peru February 8-10, IICA-SIDA, San José, 2000

Jackson, Cecile “Women/Nature or Gender/History? A Critique of Ecofeminist ‘Development’”, in The Journal of Paesant Studies, vol. 20, issue 3, 1993, p. 389-418

Jackson, Cecile, “Doing What Comes Naturally? Women And Environment In Development”, In World Development, 1993, p.1949

Jackson, Cecile; Ruth, Pearson (ed.), Feminist Visions Of Development: Gender Analysis And Policy, Routledge, London/New York, 1998

Jellison, Katherine, Entitled To Power: Farm Women And Technology, 1913-1963, The University of North Carolina Press, 1993

Jenkins, Willis; Bauman, Whitney (eds.), The Spirit of Sustainability, Berkshire Publishing Group, Massachussetts, 2010

Jia-Cheng, Liu, Zhi-Gang, Xu, Qiu-Fen, Zheng and Hua, Lillian, “Is The Feminization Of Labour Harmful To Agricultural Production? The Decision-Making And Production Control Perspective”, in Journal of Integrative Agriculture, vol. 18, issue 6, 2019, p. 1392-1401

Jiggins, Janice, “The Feminization Of Agriculture”, in The Brown Journal Of World Affairs, vol.5, issue 2, 1998, p. 251-262

Jiménez Guzmán, Alexsa, “Conocimientos tradicionales de mujeres mapuches en la agricultura tradicional, territorio Naqche de La Araucanía, Chile”, in Cecilia Mayorga Muñoz, Ferdinando Treggiari (eds.) Biodiversidad y conocimientos tradicionales. Perspectivas históricas, socioculturales y jurídicas, Universidad de La Frontera-Università degli Studi di Perugia, Temuco- Perugia, 2018 p. 97-110.

Joyner, Christopher C. and Little, George E., “It’s Not Nice To Fool Mother Nature! The Mystique of Feminist Approaches to International Environemental Law”, in Boston University International Law Journal, 1996, p. 223-266

Kassie, Menale; Stage, Jesper; Teklewold, Hailemariam; Erenstein, Olaf, “Gendered Food Security In Rural Malawi: Why Is Women’s Food Security Status Lower?”, In Food Security, vol.7, issue 6, 2015, p.1299-1320

Kheel, Marti, Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham/Boulder/New York/Toronto/ Plymouth, 2008, p. 8

Knox, Anna; Christopher, Tanner, “Securing Women’s Land Rights In Mozambique”, in Focus On Land In Africa, 2011

Koczberski, Gina, “Women in Development: A Critical Analysis”, in Third World Quarterly, 1998, vol 19, issue 3, p. 395-410

Larrére, Catherine, “La Nature A-T-Elle Un Genre? Variétés D’écoféminisme”, in Cahiers Du Genre, n. 59, 2015, p. 103-125

Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana, Feminization of Agriculture: Trends and Driving Forces, Background Paper For the World Development Report 2008, Rimisp-Latin American Center for Rural Development – International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 2006

Lorber, Judith; Farrell, Susan A., The Social Construction Of Gender, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, 1991.

Malone Linda A., “Environmental Justice Reimagined Through Human Security and Post- Modern Ecological Feminism: A Neglected Perspective on Climate Change”, in Fordham International Law Journal, 2015, vol, 2, p. 1445-1471

Meinzen, Ruth – Dick; Quisumbing, Agnes; Biermayr-Jenzano, Julia; Wilde, Vicki; Noordeloos, Marco; Rgasa, Catherine; Beintema, Nienke, “Engendering Agricultural Research, Development, and Extension”, in Ifpri Reseach Monograph, Washington, 2011, p. 11

Mellor, Mary, Feminism and Ecology, New York University Press, New York, 1997

Mellor, Mary, Women, “Nature And The Social Construction Of ‘Economic Men’”, In Ecological Economics, vol. 20, issue 2, 1997, p. 129-140

Mies, Maria, Patriarchy And Accumulation On A World Scale, London, Zed Books, 1986, p. 16-17

Moore, Niamh, “Ecofeminism and Third Wave Feminism? Essentialism, Activism and the Academy”, in Stacy Gillis, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford (eds.), Third Wave Feminism. A Critical Exploration, Palgrave MacMillan, New York, p. 227-239

Morrow, Karen, “Gender and the Sustainable Development Goals”, in Duncan French and Louis J. Kotzé (eds.), Sustainable Development Goals, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2018, p. 149-172

Mukoni, Manuku, “Gender Identity Construction, Community Environmental Education and Ecofeminism: Untapped Interconnections”, In International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, Vol. 3, issue 7, 2019, p. 309-317

Narayanaswamy, Lata, “Whose Feminism Counts? Gender(Ed)Knowledge Ans Professionalisation In Development”, in Third World Quarterly, vol. 37, issue 12, 2016, p. 2156-2175

Nhanenge, Jytte (ed.), Ecofeminsm. Towards Integrating The Concerns Of Women, Poor People, and Nature Into Development, University Press of America, Maryland, 2011

Nightingale, Andrea J., “The Nature of Gender: Work, Gender, and Environment”, in Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 24, issue 2, 2006, p. 165-185

Norgaard Kari Marie, “The Essentialism of Ecofeminism and the Real”, in Organization & Environment, vol. 11 issue 4, 1998, p. 492-497

Osmond, Marie Withers; Thorne, Barrie, “Feminist Theories. The Social Construction of Gender in Families and Society”, in Pauline Boss, William J. Doherty, Ralph La Rossa, Walter R. Schumm, Suzanne K. Steinmetz (Eds.), Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods. A Contextual Approach, Springer Boston, 1993, p. 591-625

Palacios-Lopez, Amparo; Christiaensen, Luc; Kilic, Talip, “How Much of the Labor in African Agriculture is Provided by Women?”, in Food Policy, 2017, p. 52-63

Paltasingh, Tattwamasi; Lakshmi, Lingam, “Production and Reproduction in Feminism: Ideas, Perspectives and Concepts”, in IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review, vol. 3, issue 1, 2014, p. 45-53

Paoloni, Lorenza; Onorati, Antonio, “Regulation of Large-Scale Acquisitions of Land: The Case of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Land, Fisheries and Forests”, in The Law and Development Review, vol. 7, issue 2, 2014, p. 369-400

Paoloni, Lorenza; Vezzani, Simone, “La Dichiarazione ONU sui diritti dei contadini e delle altre persone che lavrano nelle aree rurali: prime riflessioni”, in Federalismi, 2019, issue 1, p. 1-33

Pattnaik, Itishree; Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Lockie, Stewart; Pritchard, Bill, “The Feminization of Agriculture or the Feminization of Agrarian Distress? Tracking the Trajectory of Women In Agricuture in India”, in Journal Of Asia Pacific Economy, 2018, p. 138-155

Pearce, Diane, “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, And Welfare”, in Urban And Social Change Review, 1978, vol. 11, p. 28-36

Pease, Bob, “Recreating Men’s Relationship with Nature: Toward a Profeminst Environmetalism”, in Men And Masculinities, Vol. 22, issue 1, 2019, p. 113-123

Perkins, Patricia E., “Feminist Ecological Economics and Sustainability”, in Journal Of Bioeconomics, 2007, p. 227-244

Philippopoulos, Andreas, Mihalopoulos Victoria Brooks, (eds.), Research Methods in Environmental Law: a Handbook, Edward Elgar, Cheltehnam/Northamptoon, 2017

Pini, Barbara; Brandth, Berit; Little, Jo, (Eds) Feminisms and Ruralities, Lexinton Books, Lanham/Boulder/ New York/ London, 2015

Plumwood, Val, “Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminsm, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism”, in Hypatia, vol. 6, issue 1, 1991, p. 3-27

Plumwood, Val, Feminism and the Mastery of Nature, London, Routledge, 1993

Pradeep, Joliya; Amita, Maurya; Shilpi, Sisodia; Virendra, Kamalvanshi, Feminization of Agriculture: A Dream Project, in Indian Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 13, issue 1, 2017, p. 769 ss.

Puleo, Alicia H., What Is Ecofeminism, in Quaderns De La Mediterrania, 2017, vol. 25, p. 27-34

Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen – Dick, Ruth; Raney, Terri L., Croppenstedt André, Behrman, Julia A. and Peterman, Amber (eds.), Gender in Agriculture. Closing the Knowledge Gap, FAO-Springer, New York/London, 2014

Resurrección, Bernadette P., “Persistent Women And Environementa Linkages In Climate Change And Sustainable Development Agendas”, in Women’s Stidies International Forum, 2013, p. 33-43

Resurrección, Bernadette P., “Gender and Environment from ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology, in Mac Gregory Sherilyn (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, Routledge, Oxon, 2017, p. 71-85

Rowe, Audrey, “The Feminization Of Poverty: An Issue For The 90’s”, in Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, vol. 4, issue 1, 1991, p. 73-79.

Saloom, Rachel, “A Feminist Inquiry into International Law and International Relations”, in Roger Williams University Law Review, vol.12, issue 1, 2006, p. 159-181

Shiva, Vandana, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology And Development, Zed Books, London,1989

Shiva, Vandana, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge, South and Press, Boston, 1997

Shiva, Vandana; Mies, Maria, Ecofeminism, Zed Books, London, 2014

Simon, Anne E., “Whose Move? Breaking The Stalemate In Feminist And Environmental Activism”, in Ucla Women’s Law Journal, 1992, p. 145-164

Skeggs, Beverly, Formations of Class & Gender. Becoming Respectable, SAGE Publications, London, 1997

Song, Yiching, “New” Seed In “Old” China: Impact Of The Cimmyt Collaborative Pragramme On Maize Breeding In South –Western China, Phd Thesis, Wagening Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1998

Spangler, Kaitlyn; Christle, Maria Elisa, “Renegotiating Gender Roles And Cultivation Practices In The Nepali Mid- Hills: Unpacking The Feminization Of Agriculure”, in Agriculture And Human Values, vol. 37, 2020, p. 415-432

Spretnak, Charlene, “Ecofeminism: Our Roots and Flowering”, in Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein (eds.), Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Feminism, Sierra Club Books,San Francisco, 1990, p. 3-14

Stanley, Liz, “Should ‘Sex’ Really Be ‘Gender’ – or ‘Gender’ Really Be ‘Sex’”, in Stevi Jackson and Sue Scott (eds.) Gender: A Sociological Reader, Routledge, London/New York, 2002, p. 31-41

Steans, Jill, Gender and International Relations. Theory, Practice, Policy, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2013

Sturgeon, Noël, Ecofeminist Nature: Race, Gender, Feminist Theory And Political Action, Routledge Taylor &Franscis Londonand New York, 1997. p. 10

Sturgeon, Noël, “Ecofeminist Natures And Transnational Environemental Politics”, in Heather Eaton, Lois Ann Lorentzen (Eds.) Ecofeminsm and Globalization: Exploring Culture, Context, and Religion, Rowman &Littlefield Publishers, New York/Toronto/Oxford, 2003, p. 91-122.

Sweetman, Caroline (ed.), Women, Land and Agriculture, Oxfam Publishing, Oxford, 1999

Tickner, Ann J., Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security, Columbia University Press, New York, 1992

Tzeporah, Berman, “The Raper Of Mother Nature? Women In The Language Of Environmental Discourse”, in Trumpeter, vol. 11, no. 14, 1994, p. 173-178

United Nations, The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, June 1972, UN Doc. A/CONF.48/14/Rev. 1

United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 18 December 1979, 1249 UNTS 13

United Nations, Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Developmnet and Peace, Nairobi 15-26 July 1985, UN Doc. A/CONF.116/28/Rev. 1

United Nations, Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing , 4-15 September 1995, UN Doc. A/CONF.177/20/Rev. 1

United Nations, Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August- 4 September 2002, UN Doc. A/CONF.199/20

United Nations, Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Developmment, 4 September 2002, UN Doc. A/CONF.199/20

United Nations, Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, UN Doc. A/RES/70/1

United Nations, Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro 1992, 1760 UNTS 79

Vanegas, Marta R.; Pruitt, Lisa R., “Cedaw And Rural Development: Empowering Women with Law from the Top Down, Activism from the Bottom Up”, in University of Baltimore Law Review, vol. 41, issue 2, p. 263-320, 2012.

Verchick Robert R.M., “In A Greener Voice: Feminist Theory And Environemental Justice”, in Harvard Women’s Law Journal, 1996, vol. 19, p. 23-88

Vidhu, Verma, “Endengering Development: Limits Of Feminist Theories And Justice”, in Economic And Political Weekly, p. 5246-5252, 2004

Wagle, Radha; Pillay, Soma; Wright, Wendy, Feminist Institutionalism And Gendered Bureaucracies: Forestry Governance In Nepal, Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore, 2020

Waring, Marylin, If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics, Harper & Row, New York, 1988

Warren, Karen, “The Power And The Promise Of Ecological Feminism”, in Environmental Ethics, vol. 12, issue 2, 1990, p. 125-146

Zweifel, Helen “The Gendered Nature of Biodiversity Conservation”, in Nwsa Journal, vol. 9 issue 3, 1997, p. 107-123

Web References

Cambridge Dictionary, v. Feminization, < https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/feminization.> Cambridge University Press 2020. [Retrived on 27 September, 2020]

CBD Strategy and Action Plan, Liberia’ National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, at https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/lr/lr-nbsap-01-p1-en.pdf., p. 33-35. [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Collins COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary, v. to feminize, HarperCollins Publishers, at < https://www.collinsdictionary.com/it/dizionario/inglese/feminize>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Consortium on Gender, Security &Human Rights, Feminist Critiques of the Sustainable Development Goals. Analysis and Bibliography, 2017, at https://genderandsecurity.org/sites/default/files/Feminist_Critiques_of_the_SDGs_-_Analysis_and_Bibliography_-_CGSHR.pdf, p. 5, [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Convention on Biological Diversity, COP 5 Decision V/16, 15-26 May 2000, Nairobi Kenya, at <https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7158>. [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Christine Okali, Searching for New Pathways Towards Achieving Gender Equity. Beyond Boserup and ‘Women’s Role in Economic Development’, in Esa Working Paper No. 11-09, March 2011, <http://www.fao.org/3/a-am314e.pdf. >. [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Declaration of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of the Americas, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 7 December 1996, at http://www.cumbre-americas.org/summit_sd/summit_sd_dec_en.pdf. [Retrieved on 29 September, 2020]

De Brauw Alan, Huang Jikun, Zhang Linxiu and Rozelle Scott, The Feminization of Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics, IFPRI Discussion Paper, 2012, at < http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/126960/filename/127171.pdf.> [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

De Schutter, Olivier, Women’s Rights and the Right to Food, A/ARC/22/50, 24 December 2012, p.14., at https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/AHRC2250_English.PDF. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

European Parliament, Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Women’s Empowerment and Its Links to Sustainable Development, 2016, p.10, at < https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/556927/IPOL_IDA(2016)556927_EN.pdf>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

FAO, The Female Face of Farming, at <http://www.fao.org/gender/resources/infographics/the-female-face-of-farming/en/>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

FAO, The Role of Women in Agriculture, Esa Working Paper 11-02, March 2011, at <http://www.fao.org/3/am307e/am307e00.pdf.> [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

FAO, Gender-Disaggregated Data for Agriculture and Rual Development, Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Programme, Rome, 2003, at < http://www.fao.org/3/al210e/al210e00.pdf.>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

FAO, Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition, 17 July-6 August 2017, at < http://www.fao.org/3/a-i8222e.pdf>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

Khachaturyan Marianna, Peterson Wesley F., “Does Gender Really Matter in Agriculture?”, in Agricultural Economics, 2018,<https://agecon.unl.edu/cornhusker-economics/2018/does-gender-matter-agriculture.pdf>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Lambrecht Isabel, Schuster Monica, Asare Sarah and Pelleriaux Laura, “Changing Gender Roles in Agriculture?. Evidence from 20 Years of Dtat in Ghana”, IFPRI Discussion Paper, march 2017, at < http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/131105/filename/131316.pdf>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Lastarria-Cornhiel Susana, Feminization of Agriculture: Trends and Driving Forces, Background Paper for the World Development Report, 2008, p.1- 21, at <https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9104>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

Maters Karen, The Nairobi World Conference, Women of Europe Supplement No. 24, Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information, Communication, Culture Women’s Information Service, 1986, p. 41, at < http://aei.pitt.edu/33993/1/A470.pdf>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

Mayer Elizabeth, The Power and the Premise of Ecofeminism, Reconsidered, in Honors Research Project, 1994, at <https://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=phil_honproj>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

Murali Vani Swarupa, In India and Africa , Women farmers lack land rights, in The Interpreter, 2012, at <https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/india-and-africa-women-farmers-need-land-rights>. [Retrieved on 29 September, 2020]

Palumbo Letizia, Sciurba Alessandra, The Vulnerability to Exploitation of Women Migrant Workers in Agriculture in the EU: the Need for a Human Rights and Gender Based Approach, 2018, at <https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2018/604966/IPOL_STU(2018)604966_EN.pdf>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

Pandit Ambika, Women from ‘Farm Suicide Families’ Demand Special Rehab Package, Uniform Compensation Policy,in The Times of India, January, 28, 2020, at <https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/women-from-farm-suicide-families-demand-special-rehab-package-uniform-compensation-policy/articleshow/73686539.cms.>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Parpart Jane L. M., Connely Patricia and Barriteau V. Eudine (eds), Theoretical perspectives on Gender and Development, International Development Research Centre, Canada, 2000, at <https://prd-idrc.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/openebooks/272-4/index.html#page_161>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Quesada-Aguillar Andre and Mata Gabriela, Gender And National Biodiversity Strategies And Action Plans (NBSAPs), Convention on Biological Diversity- IUCN fact sheet, https://www.cbd.int/gender/doc/fs_uicn-cbd_nbsaps.pdf. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Schuster Monica and Lambrecht Isabel, Gender Roles in Agriculture: Did Anything Change?, 2017, at <https://a4nh.cgiar.org/2017/10/25/gender-roles-in-agriculture-did-anything-change/>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Sen Gita, Alemany Cecilia, “SDG5 Advancing Women’s Rights and Strengthening Global Governance: The Synergies”, extract from the civil society report Stotlight on Sustainable Development 2019, at https://dawnnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Spotlight_Innenteil_2019_web_sdg5.pdf, [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Smith Sarah, “Introducing Feminism in International Relations Theory”, in E- international Relations, 2018, at <https://www.e-ir.info/2018/01/04/feminism-in-international-relations-theory/>. [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Stephens Alexandra, Gender Issues in Agriculture and Rural Development Policy in Asia and the Pacific, FAO Regional Expert Consultation, 1995, at <http://www.fao.org/3/x0177e00.htm>. [Retrieved on 28 September, 2020]

UNFPA, Guidelines on Women’s Empowerment for the UN President Coordination System, United Nations Population Fund, UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1995, <https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/Guidelines_complete_text_without_figures_296K.pdf>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

Nan Zhu and Chang Lei, “Evolved but Not Fixed: A Life History Account of Gender Roles and Gender Inequality”, in Frontiers in Psychology, available at < https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664064/pdf/fpsyg-10-01709.pdf>. [Retrieved on 27 September, 2020]

UNHR and UNWomen, Realizing Women’s Rights to Land and Other Productive Resources, HR/PUB/13/04, United Nations, New York/Geneva, 2013 < https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/RealizingWomensRightstoLand.pdf > [Retrieved on 30 September, 2020]

Yao Pauline, The Right to inherit in Customay Law: An Obstacle to Women’s Emancipation in Ivory Coast, 2014, at <http://www.citego.org/bdf_fiche-document-1388_en.html>. [Retrieved on 29 September, 2020]




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17345/rcda2951



Enllaços refback

  • No hi ha cap enllaç refback.


Copyright (c) 2021 Revista Catalana de Dret Ambiental