A Definition of Folklore: A Personal Narrative

Dan Ben-Amos

Resum

La meva definició de folklore com a «comunicació artística en petit grup» va sorgir en el context dels estudis folklòrics dels anys seixanta, com a resultat de la meva insatisfacció amb les definicions que circulaven en aquell moment, i sota la influència de l’antropologia, la lingüística –en particular ‹l’etnografia de la parla›– i el formalisme rus. El meu treball de camp entre els habitants d’Edo a Nigèria va tenir un impacte formatiu en la meva concepció del folklore, quan vaig observar els seus narradors, cantants, ballarins i endevins en acció. La resposta a la definició va ser inicialment negativa o, en el millor dels casos, ambivalent, però a mesura que passava el temps, va prendre un gir més positiu.

Paraules clau

context; comunicació; definició; performance; procés

Text complet:

PDF (English)

Referències


ABRAHAMS, Roger D. (1963): “Folklore in Culture: Notes toward an Analytic Method”. Texas Studies in Literature and Language no. 5 (Spring 1963): 98-110.

ABRAHAMS, Roger D. (1968): “Introductory Remarks to a Rhetorical Theory of Folklore”. Journal of American Folklore no. 81: 143-158.

ABRAHAMS, Roger D. (1993): “Phantoms of Romantic Nationalism in Folkloristics”. Journal of American Folklore: 3-37.

ADEMOYEGA, Adewale (1981): Why We Struck: The Story of the First Nigerian Coup. Ibadan, Nigeria: Evans Brothers.

ADORONO, Theodor W. (1973): The Jargon of Authenticity. Trans. Knut TARNOWSKI and Frederic WILL. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

AGWUNCHA NWANKWO, Arthur (1987): Power and Violence in Nigerian Politics. Enugu, Nigeira: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co.

AKINNOLA, Richard (1998): History of Coup d’etats in Nigeria. Lagos: Media Research and Resource Bureau.

ANTTONEN, Pertti J. (2005): Tradition through Modernity: Postmodernism and Nation-State in Folklore Scholarship. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society.

BASCOM, William R. (1953): “Folklore and Anthropology”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 66: 283-290.

BASCOM, William R. (1955): “Verbal Art”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 68: 245-252.

BAUMAN, Richard (1969): “Towards a Behavioral Theory of Folklore: A Reply to Roger Welsch”. Journal of American Folklore no. 82: 167-170.

BAUMAN, Richard (1975): “Verbal Art as Performance”. American Anthropologist, New Series, vol. 77, no. 2 (June 1975): 290-311.

BAUMAN, Richard (1983) Let Your Words be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence among Seventeenthcentury Quakers. New York: Cambridge University Press.

BAUMAN, Richard (1986): Story, Performance, and Event: Contextual Studies of Oral Narrative. New York: Cambridge University Press.

BAUMAN, Richard (2004): A World of Others’ Words: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Intertextuality. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

BAYARD, Samuel P. (1953): “The Materials of Folklore”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 66: 17.

BECK, Jane C. (1997): “Taking Stock: 1996 American Folklore Society Presidential Address”. Journal of American Folklore no. 110: 123-139.

BECKER, Howard (1933-1934): “Culture Case Study and Ideal-Typical Method: With Special Reference to Max Weber”. Social Forces no. 12: 399-405.

BECKER, Howard (1940): “Constructive Typology in the Social Sciences”. In Contemporary Social Theory. Eds. Henry E. BARNES, Howard BECKER and Frances BECKER. New York: Appleton-Century, p. 17-47.

BECKER, Jane S. (1998): Selling Tradition: Appalachia and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930-1940. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1963a): “Folklore in Israel”. Schweizerisches Archiv für Volkskunde no. 59: 14-24.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1963b): “Hebrew Parallels to Indian Folktales”. Journal of the Assam Research Society no. 15: 37-45.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1963c): “The Situation Structure of the Non-Humorous English Ballad”. Midwest Folklore no. 13: 163-176.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1964): “In Praise of the Besht: Commentary and Motif-Index”. Unpublished M. A. Thesis. Bloomington: Indiana University.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1967a): “Ikpomwosa Osemwegie: A Young Bini Poet”. Nigeria Magazine no. 94: 250-252.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1967b): “Story Telling in Benin”. African Arts/Arts d’Afrique no. 1: 54-59.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1967c): “Narrative Forms in the Haggadah: Structural Analysis”. Unpublished Dissertation. Bloomington: Indiana University.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (ed.) (1970): In Praise of the Baal Shem Tov. Editor and translator, in collaboration with Jerome R. MINTZ. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1971): “Toward a Definition of Folklore in Context”. Journal of American Folklore no. 84: 3-15.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1983): “The Idea of Folklore: An Essay”. In Studies in Aggadah and Jewish Folklore edited by Issachar BEN-AMI and Joseph DAN. Folklore Research Center Studies 8. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, p. 11-17. [Reprinted in Victor D. SANUA (ed.): Fields of Offerings: Studies in Honor of Raphael Patai. Cranberry, N.J.: Associated University Presses, 1983, p. 47-64; Alan DUNDES (ed.): Folklore: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. Vol. I. London: Routledge, 2005]

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1984):“The Seven Strands of Tradition: Varieties in Its Meaning in American Folklore”. Journal of Folklore Research no. 21: 97-131.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1992): Do We Need Ideal Types (in Folklore)? — An Address to Lauri Honko. NIF Papers no. 2. Turku: Nordic Institute of Folklore.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1993): “Context in Context.” Western Folklore no. 52 : 209-226.

BEN-AMOS, Dan (1998): “The Name Is the Thing”. Journal of American Folklore no. 111: 257-280.

BENDIX, Regina (1997): In Search of Authenticity: The Formation of Folklore Studies: Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

BENDIX, Regina (1998): “Of Names, Professional Identities, and Disciplinary Futures.” Journal of American Folklore no. 111: 235-246.

BIRNBAUM, Norman (1978): “The Annales School and Social Theory [with Discussion]”. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) no. 1: 225-242.

BLANK, Trevor J. and Robert GLENN HOWARD (eds.) (2013): Tradition in the Twenty-First Century: Locating the Role of the Past in the Present. Logan: Utah State University Press.

BLOCH, Marc; Lucien FEBVRE (1994-2003): Marc Bloch, Lucien Febvre et les Annales d’histoire économique et sociale: correspondance. 3 vols. Ed. Bertand Müller, Paris: Fayard.

BOGATYRËV, Peter; Roman JAKOBSON (1929): “Die Folklore als eine besondere Form des Schaffens”. In Donum natalicum Schrijnen, verzameling van opstellen opgedragen aan... Jos. Schrijnen bij gelegenheid van zijn zestigsten verjaardag, 3 Mei 1929. Utrecht: Dekkera and Van der Vegt, p. 900-913. [Revised version: Roman Jakobson: Selected Writings. The Hague: Mouton, 1966, 4, p. 1-15; English translation: Peter STEINER (ed.): The Prague School: Selected Writings, 1919-1946. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982, p. 32-46.]

BOGGS, Ralph Steele (1951): “Bibliography of R. S. Boggs Through 1950”. Folklore Americas no. 11 2 (1951): 1-13.

BRONNER, Simon J. (1998): Following Tradition: Folklore in the Discourse of American Culture. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.

BRONNER, Simon J. (2011): Explaining Traditions: Folk Behavior in Modern Culture. Lexington, KY.: The University Press of Kentucky.

BRÜCKNER, Wolfgang; Klaus BEITL (eds.) (1983): Volkskunde als akademische Diszipline. Studien zur Institutionelausbildung. Referat eines wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Symposions vom 8.-10. Oktober 1982 in Würzburg. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse 414. Vienna: Der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

BRUNVAND, Jan Harold (1968): The Study of American Folklore: An Introduction. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.

BURGER, Thomas (1976): Max Weber's Theory of Concept Formation: History, Laws, and Ideal Types. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

BURGUIÈRE, André (2006): The Annales School: An Intellectual History. Trans. Jane Marie TODD. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

BURKE, Peter (1990): French Historical Revolution: the Annales School, 1929-89. Standford, California: Stanford University Press.

CAHNMAN, Werner J. (1964): “Max Weber and the Methodologica Controversy in the Social Sciences”. In Sociology and History: Theory and Research. Eds. Werner J. CAHNMAN and Alvin BOSKOFF. New York: The Free Press, p. 103-127.

CAHNMAN, Werner J. (1965): “Ideal Type Theory: Max Weber’s Concept and Some of Its Derivations.” Sociological Quarterly no. 6: 268-280.

CASHMAN, Ray, Tom MOULD and Pravina SHUKLA (eds.) (2011): The Individual and Tradition: Folkloristic Perspectives. Special Publications of the Folklore Institute, no. 8. Indiana University Bloomington. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

CLARK, Stuart (ed.) (1999): The Annales School: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. London: Routledge.

COHEN, Ronald D. (2002): Rainbow Quest: The Folk Music Revival and American Society 1940-1970. Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

COHEN, Ronald D. (ed.) (2003): Alan Lomax: Selected Writings 1934-1997. New York: Routledge.

COX, George W. (1881): An Introduction to the Science of Comparative Mythology and Folklore. New York: H. Holt and Co.

DORSON, Richard M. (1955): “The First Group of British Folklorists”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 68: 333-340.

DORSON, Richard M. (1963): “Current Folklore Theories”. Current Anthropology no. 4: 93-112.

DORSON, Richard M. (1968): The British Folklorists: A History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

DORSON, Richard M. (1976): Folklore and Fakelore: Essays toward a Discipline of Folk Studies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

DORSON, Richard M. (ed.) (1972): Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

DUNDES, Alan (1964a): “Texture, Text, and Context”. Southern Folklore Quarterly no. 28: 251-265. [reprinted in Alan Dundes: Interpreting Folklore. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980, p. 20-32.]

DUNDES, Alan (1964b): The Morphology of North American Indian Folktales. Folklore Fellows’ Communications 195. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

DUNDES, Alan (1965): “What Is Folklore?”. In Alan DUNDES (ed.): The Study of Folklore. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, p. 1-3.

DUNDES, Alan (1966): “The American Concept of Folklore”. Journal of the Folklore Institute no. 3: 226-249.

DWYER-SHICK, Susan A. (1979): “The American Folklore Society and Folklore Research in America, 1888-1940”. Unpublished Dissertation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

EDMONSON, Munro S. (1971): Lore: An Introduction to the Science of Folklore and Literature. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

EMRICH, Duncan (1946): “Folklore: William John Thoms”. California Folklore Quarterly no. 5 (1946): 355-374.

FINK, Carole (1989): Marc Bloch: A Life in History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

FORSTER, Robert (1978): “Achievements of the Annales School”. The Journal of Economic History no. 38: 58-76.

GAILY, Alan (1989): “The Nature of Tradition”. Folklore no. 100: 143-161.

GERSHENHORN, Jerry (2004): Melville J. Herskovits and the Racial Politics of Knowledge. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

GILET, Peter (1998): Vladimir Propp and the Universal Folktale: Recommissioning an Old Paradigm Story as Initiation. Middlebury Studies in Russian Language and Literature, vol. 17. New York: Peter Lang.

GLASSIE, Henry (1983): “The Moral Lore of Folklore”. Folklore Forum no. 16 (1983): 123-151.

GLASSIE, Henry (1995): “Tradition”. Journal of American Folklore no. 108: 395-412.

GOLDSTEIN, Kenneth S. (1964): A Guide for Field Workers in Folklore. Hatboro, Pennsylvania: Folklore Associates.

GOLOMB, Jacob (1995): In Search of Authenticity: From Kierkergaard to Camus. London: Routledge.

GOMME, George Laurence (1908): Folklore as an Historical Science. London: Methuen.

GROJAHN, Martin (1966): Beyond Laughter: Humor and the Subconscious. New York: McGraw-Hill.

GUMPERZ, John J.; Dell HYMES (eds.) (1964): “The Ethnography of Communication”. Special Publication of American Anthropologist no. 66, 6, pt. 2.

HAHN, Johann Georg von (1864): Griechische und albanesische Märchen. 2 vols. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.

HARSGOR, Michael (1978): “Total History: The Annales School”. Journal of Contemporary History no. 13: 1-13.

HARTLAND, Edwin Sidney (1891): The Science of Fairy Tales, An Inquiry into Fairy Mythology. London: W. Scott.

HASAN-ROKEM, Galit (1998): “The Birth of Scholarship out of the Spirit of Oral Tradition: Folk Narrative Publications and National Identity in Modern Israel”. Fabula no. 39: 277-290.

HERSKOVITS, Melville J. (1946): “Folklore after a Hundred Years: A Problem in Redefinition”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 59: 89-100.

HOBSBAWM, Eric and Terence RANGER (eds.) (1983): The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

HONKO, Lauri (1968): “Genre Analysis in Folkloristics and Comparative Religion”. Temenos no. 3: 48-66.

HONKO, Lauri (1976): “Genre Theory Revisited”. Folk Narrative Research: Some Papers Presented at the VI Congress of the International Society for Folk Narrative Research. Studia Fennica no. 20: 20-26.

HONKO, Lauri (1980): “Genre Theory”. Arv: Scandinavian Yearbook of Folklore no. 36: 42-45.

HONKO, Lauri (ed.) (1988): Tradition and Cultural Identity. Turku: Nordic Institute of Folklore.

HONKO, Lauri (1989a): “Folkloristics Theories of Genre”. Studies in Oral Narrative. Ed. Anna- Leena Siikala. Studia Fennica no. 33: 13-28.

HONKO, Lauri (1989b): “Methods in Folk Narrative Research”. In Nordic Folklore: Recent Studies. Eds. Reimund KVIDELAND and Henning K. SEHMSDORF. Folklore Studies in Translation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 23-39.

HUNT, Lynn (1986): “French History in the Last Twenty Years: The Rise and Fall of the Annales Paradigm”. Journal of Contemporary History no. 21 : 209-224.

HYMES, Dell (1964): “Introduction: Toward Ethnographies of Communication”. American Anthropologist vol. 66, no. 6, Special Publication “The Ethnography of Communication”: 1-34.

HYMES, Dell (1974): Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

HYMES, Dell (1981): “In Vain I Tried to Tell You”: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

JAKOBSON, Roman (1949-1950): “Slavic Mythology”. In Maria LEACH (ed.): Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology and Legends. 2 vols. Associate editor, Jerome Fried. New York: Funk & Wagnalls company, vol. 2, p. 1025-1028.

JAMES, William (1907): Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.

JASON, Heda (1991): “Marginalia to P. Bogatyrev and R. Jakobson’s Essay «Die Folklore als Eine Besondere Form des Schaffens»”. Folklore no. 102: 31-38.

KIRSHENBLATT-GIMBLETT, Barbara (1998): “Folklore’s Crisis”. Journal of American Folklore no. 111: 281-327.

KONGAS, Elli-Kaija (1963): “The Concept of Folklore”. Midwest Folklore no. 13 : 69-88.

KRAPPE, Alexander H. (1930): The Science of Folk-Lore. London: Methuen.

KROHN, Kaarle (1971): Folklore Methodology. Formulated by Julius Krohn and expanded by Nordic Researchers. Trans. Roger L. WELSCH. Publications of the American Folklore Society bibliographical and Special Series, vol. 21. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas Press. [Originally published as Die folkloristische Arbeitsmethode. Oslo, Norway: The Institute for Comparative research in Human Culture, 1926.]

KUHN, Thomas S. (1962): The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vols. 1 & 2. vol. 2, no. 2. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

LEACH, Maria (ed.) (1949-1950): Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology and Legends. 2 vols. Associate editor, Jerome Fried. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. [Reprinted as “Definitions of Folklore”. Journal of Folklore Research no. 33 (1996): 255-264.]

LEVIN, Isidor (1967): “Vladimir Propp: An Evaluation on His Seventieth Birthday”. Journal of the Folklore Institute no. 4: 32-49.

LEVY-BRUHL, Lucien (1910): Les fonctions mentales dans les sociétés inférieurs. Paris: F. Alcan. [English Translation by L. A. CLARE: How Natives Think. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1925.]

LUCKHAM, Robin (1971): The Nigerian Military: A Sociological Analysis of Authority & Revolt 1960-1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

MCDONALD, Barry (1997): “Tradition as Personal Relationship”. Journal of American Folklore no. 110: 47-67.

MILLER, Rosina S. (2004): “Of Politics, Disciplines, and Scholars: MacEdward Leach and the Founding of the Folklore Program at the University of Pennsylvania”. The Folklore Historian no. 21: 17-34.

MILNE, Pamela J (1988): Vladimir Propp and the Study of Structure in Hebrew Biblical Narrative. Sheffield: Almond Press.

NORTHROP, F. S. C.; Mason W. GROSS (eds.) (1961): Alfred North Whitehead: An Anthology. New York: The Macmillan Company.

NOY, Dov (ed.) (1963): Folktales of Israel, with the assistance of Dan BEN-AMOS. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

NWACHUKU, Levi A.; G. N. UZOIGWE (2004): Troubled Journey: Nigeria Since the Civil War. Dallas: University Press of America.

NWANKWO, Arthur A. (1987): The Military Option to Democracy: Class, Power and Violence in Nigerian Politics. Enugu, Nigeira: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co.

OYINBO, John (1971): Nigeria: Crisis and Beyond. London: Charles Knight.

ORING, Elliott (1998): “Anti Anti-‘Folklore’”. Journal of American Folklore no. 111: 328-338.

ORIOL, Carme (2012): “Josep M. Pujol (1947-2012)”. Fabula no. 53, 3-4: 295-298.

ORIOL, Carme; Josep M. PUJOL (2008): Index of Catalan Folktales. Folklore Fellows’ Communications 294. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

ORIOL, Carme; Emili SAMPER (eds.) (2013): Això era i no era: Obra folklòrica de Josep M. Pujol. Tarragona: Publicacions Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

PANTER-BRICK, S. K. (1970): “From Military Coup to Civil War January 1966 to May 1967”. In Nigerian Politics and Military Rule: Prelude to the Civil War. Commonwealth Papers 13. London: University of London and The Athlone Press, p. 14-57.

PAREDES, Américo; Richard BAUMAN (eds.) (1972): Toward New Perspectives in Folklore. Publications of the American Folklore Society Bibliographical and Special Series, vol. 23. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas Press. [Second edition Bloomington, Indiana: Trickster Press, 2000.]

PINCUS, Leslie (1996): Authenticating Culture in Imperial Japan: Kuki Shuzo and the Rise of National Aesthetics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

PROPP, Vladimir (1958): Morphology of the Folktale. Trans. Laurence SCOTT. Ed. Svatava PIRKOVA-JAKOBSON. International Journal of American Linguistics, 24, no. 4, part III. Publication Ten of the Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University.

PROPP, Vladimir (1968): Morphology of the Folktale. 2nd revised edition. Ed. Louis A. WAGNER. “Introduction” by Alan DUNDES. Publications of the American Folklore Society Bibliographical and Special Series, vol. 9. Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics, Publication 10. Austin: University of Texas Press.

PROPP, Vladimir (1984): Theory and History of Folklore. Trans. Ariadna Y. MARTIN and Richard P. MARTIN. Ed. Anatoly Liberman. Theory and History of Literature, vol. 5. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

PROPP, Vladimir (2012): The Russian Folktale. Trans. and ed. Sibelan FORRESTER. Series in Fairy Tale Studies. Detroit: Wayne State University.

PUJOL, Josep M. (2013): Three Selected Papers on Catalan Folklore: Traditional Literature and Ethnopoetics; Introduction to a History of Folklores; Extraordinary Stories, Urban Legends. Eds. Carme ORIOL and Emili SAMPER. Tarragona: Publicacions URV. Electronic version http://publicacionsurv.cat/llibres-digitals/biblioteca-digital/item/419-three-selected-papers-on-catalan-folklore" target="_blank"> http://publicacionsurv.cat/llibres-digitals/biblioteca-digital/item/419-three-selected-papers-on-catalan-folklore [last access: July 2014]

RAGLAN, Lord (1946): “The Scope of Folklore”. Folklore no. 57: 98-105.

RIEHL, Wilhelm Heinrich (1859): “Die Volkskunde als Wissenschaft.” In Culturstudien aus drei Jahrhunderten. Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta, p. 205-229. [Reprinted in Gerhard LUTZ (ed.): Volkskunde: Ein Handbuch zur Geschichte ihrer Probleme. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1958.]

ROPE, Jonathan (2007): “Thoms and the Unachieved ‘Folk-Lore of England’”. Folklore vol. 118: 203-216.

RUSSELL, Ian; David ATKINSON (eds.) (2004): Folk Song: Tradition, Revival, and Re-Creation. The Elphinstone Insitute Occasional Publications 3. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.

SHILS, Edward (1981): Tradition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

SIMPSON, George Eaton (1973): Melville J. Herskovits. Leaders of Modern Anthropology Series. New York: Columbia University Press.

SMITH, Lllewellyn M. (director and producer) (2009): Herskovits at the Heart of Blackness [videorecording]. Berkeley, CA: California Newsreel.

SMITH, Marian A. (1947): “Thoms, «Folk-Lore» and the Folklore Centenary”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 60: 417-420.

SMITH, Marian A. (1959): “The Importance of Folklore Studies to Anthropology”. Folklore no. 70: 300-312.

STOCKING, Jr. George W. (1965): “On the Limits of ‘Presentism’ and ‘Historicism’ in the Historiography of the Behavioral Sciences”. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences no. 1: 211-218.

SZWED, John F. (2010): Alan Lomax: the Man who Recorded the World. New York: Viking Penguin.

TAYLOR, Archer (1946): “The Problems of Folklore”. Journal of American Folklore no. 59: 101-107.

TAYLOR, Archer (1952): “The Place of Folklore”. PMLA no. 67: 59-66.

TENDLER, Joseph (2013): Opponents of the Annales School. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

THOMPSON, Stith (ed.) (1953): Four Symposia On Folklore. Held at the Midcentury International Folklore Conference Indiana University, July 21-August 4, 1950. Indiana University Publications Folklore Series No. 8. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

THOMS, William [Ambrose Merton] (1846): “Folklore”. The Athenaeum no. 982 (August 22, 1846): 862-863. [Reprinted in Alan DUNDES (ed.): The Study of Folklore. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, p.4-6; “‘Folk-Lore,’ from «The Athenæum» August 22, 1846.” Journal of Folklore Research no. 33 (1996):187-189.]

TYLOR, Edward Burnett (1958): The Origins of Culture. New York: Harper & Brothers. [Originally published as chapters I-X of Primitive Culture. London: John Murray, 1871.]

UTLEY, Francis Lee (1958): “The Study of Folk Literature: Its Scope and Use”. The Journal of American Folklore no. 71: 139-148.

UTLEY, Francis Lee (1961): “Folk Literature: An Operational Definition”. Journal of American Folklore no. 74: 193-206.

WATSON, Stephen H. (1997): Tradition(s): Refiguring Community and Virtue in Classical German Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

WEBER, Max (1947): The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Trans. A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. New York: The Free Press.

WEBER, Max (1949): Max Weber on The Methodology of the Social Sciences. Translated by Edward A. SHILS and Henry A. FINCH. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

WELSCH, Roger (1968): “A Note on Definitions”. Journal of American Folklore no. 81: 262-264.

WELSCH, Roger (2012): Embracing Fry Bread: Confessions of a Wannabe. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

WILGUS, D. K. (1973): “The Text is the Thing”. Journal of American Folklore no. 86: 241-252.

ZUMWALT, Rosemary Lévy (1988): American Folklore Scholarship: A Dialogue of Dissent. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17345/elop20149-28