‘Localised’ and ‘unlocated’ contemporary legends and their function on the Greek internet


  • Aphrodite-Lidia Nounanaki University of Athens
  • Rea Kakampoura University of Athens



Paraules clau:

llegendes contemporànies, localitat, Internet grega, folklore digital, històries de por


Se sap que les llegendes contemporànies solen funcionar com a mitjà per sostenir les maneres imperants i les normes socials dominants. Així, se situen a prop del moment i el lloc de l’acció narrativa. En connectar-se a un lloc conegut determinat, és a dir, localitzar-se, promouen una sensació de plausibilitat.

No obstant això, entre les llegendes que es troben a la Internet grega, poques històries relacionen l’esdeveniment narrat amb un lloc concret. La majoria de les llegendes conegudes es transmeten sense cap referència espacial i temporal. Després d’haver perdut la connexió amb llocs concrets, esdevenen, per tant, «no localitzades». De fet, la majoria de les llegendes contemporànies reconegudes que circulen a la xarxa grega solen ser representades com a incidents terrorífics que succeeixen a persones aleatòries en moments i llocs no especificats.

Què suposa la pèrdua de la localitat per a la funció del gènere si va ser un dels elements clau que va convertir les llegendes modernes en històries possibles i versemblants? Contes? Com sembla que funcionen en línia? Encara existeixen històries localitzades? I si ho fan, la localitat millora la funció que ja tenen o finalment perd el seu impacte?


Les dades de descàrrega encara no estan disponibles.


ÁLVAREZ MUNÁRRIZ, Luis (2010): “The Cultural Landscape Concept”. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana volumen 6 número 1 (enero-abril 2011): 50-69.

AUGÉ, Marc (2009 [1992]): Non-Places Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. New York: Verso Books.

BASSO, Keith H. (1996): “Wisdom sits in places: notes on a Western Apache landscape”. In Steven Feld & Keith H. Basso (ed.): Senses of Place. Santa Fe: School of American Research, p. 53-90.

BENEKOS, Dimitrios (2006): “Contemporary legends. Imagination and reality in modern anonymous folk tales”. Hipirotical Diary 25: 159-170 [in Greek].

BENNETT, Gillian; Paul SMITH (ed.) (2007): Urban Legends: A Collection of International Tall Tales and Terrors. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

BENNETT, Gillian (1988): “Legend: Performance and Truth”. In Gillian Bennett & Paul Smith, (ed.): Monsters with Iron Teeth. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, p. 13-36.

BLANK, Trevor J.; Lynne S. MCNEILL (2018): “Fear has no Face. Creepypasta as Digital Legendry”. In Trevor J. BLANK & Lynne S. MCNEILL (ed.): Slender Man is coming. Creepypasta and contemporary Legends on the Internet. USA: University Press of Colorado, p. 3-24.

BLANK, Trevor J. (2007): “Examining the Transmission of Urban Legends: Making the Case for Folklore Fieldwork on the Internet”. Folklore Forum 37 1.

BLANK, Trevor J. (2009): Folklore and the Internet: Vernacylar Expression in the Digital World. USA: Utah State University Press.

BREDNICH, Rolf W. (2001): “Where They Originated... Some Contemporary Legends and Their Literary Origins”. Paper presented at ISCLR Congress, Melburn Australia. <http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol20/legends.pdf>

BRUNVAND, Jan Harold (1981): The Vanishing Hitchhiker. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

BRUNVAND, Jan Harold (1984): The choking Doberman and other “new” urban legends. New York: W. W. Norton.

BRUNVAND, Jan Harold (2012): Encyclopedia of Urban Legends. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

CANTOR, Joanne (2004): “‘I’ll never have a clown in my house’: Why Horror Movies Live On”. Poetics Today, 25 (2): 283–304.

CZUBALA, Dionizjusz (1991): “The ‘Black Volga’: Child Abduction Urban Legends in Poland and Russia”. FOAFtale News 21: 1-3.

DE CERTEAU, Michel (1984): The Practice of Everyday Life, vol. I. Trans. Steven Rendall. Berkeley.

DE VOS, Gail (1996): Tales, Rumors, and Gossip. Exploring Contemporary Folk Literature in Grades 7-12. Wesport: Libraries Unlimited.

DE VOS, Gail (2012): What happens next? Contemporary Urban Legends and Popular Culture. California: ABC-CLIO.

DÉGH, Linda (1994): American Folklore and the Mass Media. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

DÉGH, Linda ([1971] 2020): “The ‘Belief Legend’ in Modern Society: Form, Function, and Relationship to Other Genres”. In Wayland Hand (ed.): American Folk Legend. USA: University of California Press, p. 55-68.

DUNDES, Alan (1980). “Who are the Folk?”. In Interpreting Folklore. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, p. 1–19.

ELIAS, Norbert ([1986] 2008): “An essay on sport and violence”. In Norbert ELIAS & Eric DUNNING (ed.) Quest for excitement: Sport and leisure in the civilising process. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, p. 150–173.

FREELAND, Cynthia A. (1995): “Realist Horror”. In Cynthia A. FREELAND & Thomas E. WARTENBERG (ed.): Film and Philosophy. London: Routledge, p.126–42.

GEORGE, Julia (1982): “The Horror Film: An Investigation of Traditional Narrative Elements” Folklore Forum 15: 159–79.

GIDDENS, Anthony (1990): The consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

GORDON, Eric; Adriana DE SOUZA E SILVA (2011): Net Locality: Why Location Matters in a Networked World. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publications.

GUNNELL, Terry (2008): “Introduction”. In Terry GUNNELL (ed.). Legends and Landscape. Háskóla útgáfan: Reykjavík, p. 13-24.

HANICH, Julia (2010): Cinematic Emotion in Horror Films and Thrillers. The Aesthetic Paradox of Pleasurable Fear. New York, London: Routledge.

HASAN-ROKEM, Galit (2016): “Ecotypes: Theory of the Lived and Narrated Experience”. Narrative Culture: Vol. 3 1: 110-137.

HENKEN, Elissa R. (2002): “Escalating Danger in Contemporary Legends”. Western Folklore 61: 259-276.

HILL, Annette (1997): Shocking Entertainment: Viewer Response to Violent Movies. Luton, UK: University of Luton Press.

HIRSCH, Eric; Michael O’HANLON (ed.) (1995): The Anthropology of Landscape. Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

HIRSCH, Eric (1995): “Landscape: Between Space and Place”. In Eric HIRSCH & Michael O’HANLON (ed.): The perspectives on Space and Place. Oxford: Clarendon, 1 30.

KLINTBERG, Bengt af (1990): “Do the Legends of Today and Yesterday Belong to the Same Genre?”. In Alan DUNDES (ed.): Foklore. Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. Volume III. The Genres of Folklore. London & New York: Routledge, p. 268-277.

KAKAMPOURA, Rea; Aphrodite Lidia NOUNANAKI (2022): “Conspiracy Theories About the Pandemic of COVID-19 and Their Function on the Greek Internet”. In Alexandros KAPANIARIS & Stamatis PAPADAKIS (ed.): The Digital Folklore of Cyberculture and Digital Humanities. IGP, p. 46-78.

KOUZAS, Georgios (2017): “Between reality and fantasy. Modern contemporary legend: the strange door of 58a Akademias street”. In M. G. MERAKLIS, G. PAPANTONAKIS, C. ZAFEIROPOULOS, M. KAPLANOGLOU & G. KATSADOROS (ed.): The fairy tale by the Grimm brothers in our time. Athens: Gutenberg - George & Costas Dardanos, p. 363-381 [in Greek].

LEFEBVRE, Henry (1991): The production of space. Blackwell: Oxford.

MCNEILL, Lynne S. (2009): “Real Virtuality: Enhancing Locality by Enacting the Small World Theory”. In Trevor J. BLANK (ed.): Folk Culture in the Digital Age: The Emergent Dynamics of Human Interaction. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, p. 85-97.

MERAKLIS, Michael (2004): Folklore Issues. Athens: Kastanioti and Diatton [in Greek].

MERAKLIS, Michael (2011): Greek folklore. Athens: Kardamitsa [in Greek].

MODLESKI, Tania (1986): “The Terror of Pleasure: The Contemporary Horror Film and Postmodern Theory”. In Tania MODLESKI (ed.): Studies in Entertainment: Critical Approaches to Mass Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 155-66.

MURRAY, Leeder (ed.) (2015): Cinematic Ghosts Haunting and Spectrality from Silent Cinema to the Digital Era. New York, London, New Delhi, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing.

NICOLAISEN, Wilhelm (1980): “Space in Folk Narrative”. In Nikolai BURLAKOFF & Carl LINDAHL (ed.): Folklore on Two Continents: Essays in Honor of Linda Dégh. Bloomington: Trickster Press, p. 14-18.

PETTITT, Thomas (1995): “Legends Contemporary, Current and Modem: An Outsider’s View”. Folklore 106: 96-100.

PETTITT, Thomas (1996): “Introduction: the contemporaneity contemporary legends”. In H. LASSEN & T. PETTITT (ed.): Modern Legends and Medieval Studies. MindreSkrifterudgivet of Loaboratoriwn for Folkesproglig Middelalterlitteratur, Odense Universitet 16, p. 7-14.

PINEDO, Isabel (1996): “Recreational Terror: Postmodern Elements of the Contemporary Horror Film”. Journal of Film and Video 48 1-2: 17-31.

SHERMAN, Sharon R., & Mikel J. KOVEN (2007): Folklore / cinema: Popular film as vernacular culture. Logan: Utah State University Press.

SIMPSON, Jaqueline (2008): “A Ghostly View of England’s Past”. In Terry GUNNELL (ed.): Legends and Landscape: Articles Based on Plenary Papers Presented at the 5th Celtic –Nordic –Baltic Folklore Symposium, Reykjavík 2005. Reykjavík: University of Iceland Press, p. 25-38.

SMITH, Paul (1983): The Book of Nasty Legends. London: Routledge.

SMITH, Paul (1986): The Book of Nastier Legends. London: Routledge.

SMITH, Paul (1991): “Editorial”. Contemporary Legend New Series 1: 1-3.

SMITH, Paul (1997): “Contemporary Legend.” In Thomas A. GREEN (ed): Folklore: An Encyclopedia of belief, customs, tales, music and art. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC- CLIO, p. 493-495.

TELOTTE, Jay (2011): “The Blair Witch Project Project: Film and the Internet”. Film Quarterly 54 3: 32-39.

THOMPSON, Tok (2012): “Netizens, Revolutionaries, and the Inalienable Right to the Internet”. In Trevor J. BLANK (ed.): Folk Culture in the Digital Age. USA: Utah State University Press, p. 46-59.

TILLEY, Christopher; Kate CAMERON-DAUM (2017): An Anthropology of Landscape. The Extraordinary in the Ordinary. University College London.

TUCKER, Elizabeth (1980): “Concepts of Space in Children’s Narratives”. In Nikolai BURLAKOFF & Carl LINDAHL (ed.): Folklore on Two Continents: Essays in Honor of Linda Dégh. Bloomington: Trickster Press, p. 19-25.

TWITCHELL, James B. (1985): Dreadful pleasures: the anatomy of modern horror. New York: Oxford.

VALK, Ülo; Daniel SÄVBORG (2018): “Place-lore, Liminal Storyworld and Ontology of the Supernatural. An Introduction”. In Ülo VALK & Daniel SÄVBORG (ed.): Storied and Supernatural Places: Studies in Spatial and Social Dimensions of Folklore and Sagas. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, p. 7−24.

WOOD, Robin (1985): “An Introduction to the American Horror Film”. Movies and Methods 2: 195-220.




Com citar

Nounanaki, A.-L., & Kakampoura, R. (2023). ‘Localised’ and ‘unlocated’ contemporary legends and their function on the Greek internet. Estudis De Literatura Oral Popular / Studies in Oral Folk Literature, (11), 61–78. https://doi.org/10.17345/elop202261-78 (Original work published December 20, 2022)